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Causes blurred vision up close and far away secondary to the abnormal curvature of the cornea or intraocular lens. Small amounts of astigmatism does not need correction, but larger amounts are corrected by either contacts or eyeglasses.


A clouding of the normally clear lens inside of our eye. Cataracts can blur vision, cause symptoms of haloes/starbursts, and make reading difficult. Most cataracts are a part of the normal aging process; however, some may occur in infants, diabetics, and secondary to trauma. When needed, patients may elect to have cataracts surgically removed.


Described as a group of diseases leading to progressive damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve is responsible for taking our visual information or what we see to the brain. Glaucoma is sometimes related to elevated intraocular eye pressures, but in some cases eye pressure is normal. Glaucoma can lead to blindness if left untreated. Glaucoma is managed by eye
drops and surgery.

Macular Degeneration

Degeneration of the macula, which is responsible for central vision and fine detail. According to the American Optometric Association, macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in people over 50 years old. There are two forms of macular degeneration: a dry form and a wet form. Currently, there are no treatments for the dry form of macular degeneration, but specific supplements have been shown to slow progression in some individuals. The wet form, is described as abnormal blood vessel growth beneath the macula?, and is controlled by intraocular injections and laser surgery.

"Pink Eye" or Conjunctivitis

Is a non-specific description of an inflamed or infected eye. The cause can be viral, bacterial, fungal, or allergic. The eye appears pink or red due to inflamed blood vessels. Additional symptoms may include tearing, white-yellow discharge, and itching. Depending on the cause, treatment may be antibiotic eye drops, anti-fungal eye drops, or antihistamine eye drops.


A normal aging process, beginning around the age of 40, in which a person losess the ablility to focus up close.  Reading small print and using the computer becomes difficult. Associated symptoms include eyestrain, extending arms far out to read reading material, and inability to read menus in dimly lit restaurants. Treatments for presbyopia include progressive bifocals, reading eyeglasses, multifocal contact lenses, or monovision lenses.